We return the poultry to the girl. RTFM by definition plastics at home

We return the poultry to the girl. RTFM by definition plastics at home


Dedicated to my dear mother, part-time best expert in separate sorting of plastics ...


If you, dear reader, have never arisen in your life for the question "what the hell is this plastic?", then you can not read the article :) But to the attention of everyone else - another article from the series "bookmark ! ". Today we have a topic - "Definition of plastics at home" and I continue to wikipedia Habr with useful information that I have left after completing my scientific and technical projects. Today, environmentalists, biotechnologists, polymer craftsmen, plastics processing engineers and all those who have had to sort plastics, glue plastics, solder plastics — automobile enthusiasts, home builders, and all interested parties — can safely go under the cat. Traditionally - at least FUN, a maximum of information, a Russian-language manual on plastics is simply not to be found, " I guarantee it ":)


... And finally the hands came to remember the Soviet children's novel of 1966, in which the practical recommendations for a child "who likes chemistry" are much more than in modern Belarusian chemistry textbooks taken together.



My old chemical friend Serezha came to me here and we started talking about my habrastaty. We smoothly switched from solvents of plastics to glue for all the same plastics and suddenly I couldn’t find the answer to “ but I didn’t understand what kind of plastic I had in my son’s machine to glue it according to your articles ”. And I decided to rectify the situation, to help all fathers, who were faced with the difficult task of repairing a plastic Chinese radio-controlled machine, donated to their children, and streamline the available information on the "reverse engineering" of plastic. Forewarned is forearmed. To find the best glue, you need to know what we glue :) By the way, the reader genseq also recommend my read the opus, all of a sudden it will help identify the plastic of the nanoporous sequencer;)


In fact, for the first time I encountered the concept of analysis of plastics in deep childhood when I read Vladimir Kiselyov’s book " a> "(if that, Children's Literature publishing house, Moscow, 1966 (!)). Very clean and bright novel, and most importantly, with the laboratory approaches that are vigorous for the child. Most of all I remember the episode with the distillation of organic glass, which I will mention in the text of the article ...


About PMMA decomposition in a children's book

& lt; ... & gt; After school, I didn’t study with Kolya, but I went to Vita, where our guys were going to prepare today from an ink device — there are such ink devices made of transparent plastic — polymethyl methacrylate — a very valuable chemical for our experiments. To do this, it was necessary to build a special installation with a refrigerator and a condenser of the finished product. In the fridge, I suggested using dry ice, which the ice-maker always stays at our grocery store, and Vitya said that this was a valuable rationalization proposal & lt; ... & gt; In the meantime, we have prepared a device for the distillation of the fragments of an ink device into polymethyl methacrylate. To do this, we connected a flask of heat-resistant glass with a refrigerator, which was prepared from a box from under shoes. In this box we put dry ice. We connected the refrigerator with a glass tube to a condenser — a wide-mouth milk bottle.


Analysis and "reverse engineering" of polymers is a difficult, ungrateful task and it is quite difficult to implement in domestic conditions. Depending on the type of plastic and the functional additives that are present in it, you may need at least FTIR spectrometer (as noted in my article about solvents for plastics reader CactusKnight " at least the simplest Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, which in 30 seconds can get the spectra of plastics "), and better NMR , mass spectrometry , X-ray phase analysis or which is worse. Naturally, given the cost of such equipment (and the presence of specially trained personnel), it becomes clear that this pleasure is not cheap. But the fact is that more often for many practical purposes it is often enough to determine what class of plastics an unknown sample belongs to, without analysis of plasticizers, fillers, etc. (although important properties of plastic very often depend on them). To do this, you can and should use simple methods that, by and large, do not even require special chemical knowledge. Speaking about the limitations, in addition to the already mentioned additives, we can mention the analysis of complex copolymers and mixtures of polymers. Such things are very difficult to identify without involving serious instrumental methods of analysis.


Plastics Introduction


Plastics are high molecular weight (polymeric) organic substances that are usually synthesized from low molecular weight compounds (monomers). They can be obtained both by chemical modification of high-molecular natural materials (cellulose, etc.), and from natural mineral raw materials (oil, natural gas, coal). The most important industrial methods for producing plastics from monomers can be classified by the mechanism of the polymer formation reaction, for example, polymerization or condensation. But since various chemically identical plastics can be obtained in different ways and from different types of raw materials, this classification will help little in analyzing unknown samples. But on the other hand, in addition to chemical research, the appearance of the plastic, as well as its behavior when heated, provides useful information for its accurate identification.


Physical interactions between individual macromolecules that make up the plastic “skeleton” are most often responsible for the useful properties of polymers that we know. These interactions are responsible for the adhesion of molecules, and therefore for strength, hardness, elasticity. Plastics consisting of linear threadlike molecules (several hundred nanometers long and several tenths nanometers in diameter) whose macromolecules are loosely linked (crosslinked) to each other, easily soften when heated. When the polymer material is heated above a certain temperature, the macromolecules, which are more or less oriented relative to each other at low temperatures, begin to slide past each other, forming a highly viscous melt. Depending on the degree of ordering of the macromolecule in the solid state, partially crystallized (partially ordered and amorphous (unordered) plastics can be distinguished. The degree of order greatly influences the behavior of the plastic during heating and its solubility. The picture below shows a schematic representation of the structure of plastics, showing the three main type of macromolecular structures:



Thermoplastics and thermoset plastics


Plastics, which soften when heated and have a flow in this state, are called thermoplastics . When cooled, such plastics become hard again. This process can be repeated many times. True, there are exceptions when the temperature at which the plastic begins to decompose is lower than the softening temperature. Plastic just does not have time to swim, because it breaks down into chemical components. By the way, solubility in organic liquids (described in detail in my previous article ), along with temperature effects, can serve as an indicator of linearity/branching polymer macromolecules. Because the solvents are embedded between the polymer chains, reduces the interaction forces between the macromolecules and allows them to move relative to each other. Important! Therefore, by the way, information from Habrastia and Solvents for plastics and protection from them can serve as an indicator for plastic type definitions are the same as all the methods described in the article below.


In contrast to thermoplastic materials, a different class of polymers, the so-called thermosetting materials, or thermosets have high thermal stability. Such substances are three-dimensional networks of tightly crosslinked macromolecules that can no longer melt or dissolve. Destruction of crosslinking can only be very high temperatures or aggressive chemical reagents.


Separately, you can mark elastic, rubbery elastomers , consisting of relatively weakly linked macromolecules. Such materials acquire a rigid structure during the vulcanization process. Due to the crosslinked structure, elastomers do not melt when heated to temperatures that are slightly lower than their decomposition temperature. Unlike chemically crosslinked elastomers, such as chemical rubber, stitching in so-called thermoplastic elastomers ("rubber for 3D printers) occurs through physical interactions between macromolecules. When heated, the forces of physical interaction between the molecules of the chain decrease, so that these polymers become ordinary thermoplastics. When when the physical interaction between molecules becomes stronger, the material behaves like an elastomer again. The table below lists the most important characteristics Whistles of the mentioned groups of polymeric materials. However, it should be remembered that pigments, plasticizer and various fillers (for example, soot or fiberglass) lead to significant deviations from these properties. Therefore, it is not always possible to identify polymeric materials only on the basis of these criteria. Densities are given as a guideline and These are rough approximations with an emphasis on solid monolithic materials (because foamed plastics differ dramatically in density from monolithic plastics).



In the piggy bank "physical properties". An approximate indicator of the hardness of plastic is its behavior when scratching with a nail: hard plastic scratches the nail; corneal plastics have approximately the same hardness with plastic; flexible or elastic plastic is scratched/pressed through with a fingernail.


If a mental experiment using a table did not produce results - it's time to read on and move on to more radical measures.


Where to start?


Start with a visual inspection. Manufacturers almost always with the help of stamping indicate the type of plastic products. Everyone probably met somewhere (often at the bottom of plastic packaging) such icons:



These are the so-called recycling codes - special characters used to designate the material from which the item is made, and to simplify the sorting procedure before sending it to recycling for recycling. At the moment, there are not many codes approved for a particular type of plastic. This is due to the fact that mixtures of various dissimilar materials (such as plastic + foil + paper) are increasingly being used. The triangle in which the numbers are indicated implies the possibility of recycling. Well, the numbers themselves - the type of plastic. Figures can be stamped without a triangle, but it is still possible to identify plastic by them. To do this, use the data from the table under the spoiler, with a list of approved IUPAC abbreviations for plastics.


Digital codes for plastics by IUPAC
Code Abbreviation Name
1 PET Polyethylene terephthalate
2 HDPE Polyethylene, high density
3 PVC Polyvinyl chloride
4 LDPE Polyethylene, low density
5 PP Polypropylene
6 PS Polystyrene
7 AB Acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, nitrile rubber
8 ABAK Acrylonitrile-butadiene-acrylate copolymer
9 ABS Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
10 ACS Acrylonitrile-chlorinated polyethylene-styrene copolymer
11 AEPDS Acrylonitrile-ethylene-propylene diene-styrene copolymer
12 AMMA Acrylonitrile Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer
13 ASA Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate copolymer
14 ca Cellulose Acetate
15 CAB Cellulose Acetate Butyrate
16 CAP Cellulose Acetate Propionate
17 CEF Formaldehyde Cellulose
18 CF Cellulose formaldehyde resin
19 CMC Carboxymethylcellulose
20 CN Cellulose Nitrate
21 COC Cyclo-olefin copolymers
22 CP Cellulose propionate
23 CTA Cellulose Triacetate
24 E/P Ethylene-propylene copolymer
25 EAA ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer
26 EBAK Ethylene Butyl Acrylate Copolymer
27 EC Ethylcellulose
28 EEAK Ethylene ethyl acrylate copolymer
29 EMA Ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer
30 EP Epoxides ; epoxy resin or plastic
31 ETFE Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer, Fluoroplast-40
32 EVA Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer
33 EVOH Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer
34 FEP Perfluoroethylenepropylene copolymer
35 FF Furan-formaldehyde resin
36 LCP Liquid Crystal Polymer
37 MABS Methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
38 MBS Methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene copolymer
39 MC methyl cellulose
40 MF Melamine formaldehyde resin
41 MP Melaminephenol resin
42 MSAN α-methylstyrene/acrylonitrile copolymer
43 PA Polyamide
44 PAA Polyacrylic acid
45 PAEK Polyaryl ether ketone
46 PAI Polyamidimide
47 PAK Polyacrylate
48 PAN Polyacrylonitrile
49 PAR Polyacrylate
50 PARA Polyacrylamide
51 PB Polybutene
52 PBAK Polybutyl acrylate
53 PBAT Polybutylene adipat/ terephthalate
54 PBD 1,2-polybutadiene
55 PBN Polybutylene naphthalate
56 PBS Polybutylene Succinate
57 PBT Polybutylene terephthalate
58 PC Polycarbonate
59 PCCE Polycyclohexylene-dimethylene-cyclohexanedicarboxylate
60 PCL Polycaprolactone
61 PCT Polycyclohexylene dimethyl terephthalate
62 PCTFE Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
63 PDAP Polydiallyl phthalate
64 PDCPD Polydicyclopentadiene
65 PEC Polyether carbonate or polybutylene succinate/carbonate
66 PEC Polyether carbonate
67 PE-C Chlorinated polyethylene
68 PEEK Polyether ether ketone
69 PEEST Polyester
70 PEI Polyetherimide
71 PEK Polyetherketone
72 LLDPE Linear low density polyethylene
73 MDPE Medium Density Polyethylene
74 PEN Polyethylene naphthalate
75 PEOX Polyethylene oxide
76 pes Polyethylene succinate
77 PESTUR Polyetheruretane
78 PESU Polyethersulfone
79 UHMWPE Ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene
80 PEUR Polyetheruretane
81 VLDPE Ultra High Density Polyethylene
82 PF Phenol formaldehyde resin
83 PFA Perfluoroalkoxyalkane resin
84 PGA Polyglycol resin
85 PHA Polyhydroxyalkanoate
86 PHB Polyhydroxybutanoic acid polyhydroxybutyrate
87 PHBV Polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate copolymer
88 PI Polyimide
89 PIB Polyisobutylene
90 PIR Polyisocyanurate
91 PK Polyketone
92 PLA Polylactic acid or Polylactide
93 PMI Polymethacrylimide
94 PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate
95 PMMI Poly-N-methyl methacrylimide
96 PMP Poly-4-methylpentene-1
97 PMS Poly-α-methylstyrene
98 pom Polyacetal; polyformaldehyde
99 PPC Polypropylene carbonate
100 PPDO Polydioxanone
101 PPE Polyphenylether
102 PP-E Polypropylene foam
103 PP-HI High impact polypropylene
104 PPOX Polypropylene oxide
105 PPS Polyphenylene sulfide
106 PPSU Polyphenylsulfone
107 EPS Polystyrene Foam
108 HIPS High Impact Polystyrene
109 PSU Polysulfone
110 PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
111 PTMAT Polybutylene adipat/ terephthalate
112 PTT Polytrimethylene terephthalate
113 PUR Polyurethane
114 PVA Polyvinyl Acetate
115 PVOH Polyvinyl alcohol
116 pvb Polyvinyl Butyral
117 PVC-C Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
118 PVC-U Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride
119 PVDC Polyvinylidene chloride
120 PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
121 PVF Polyvinylfluoride, Fluoroplast-1
122 PVFM Polyvinyl formal
123 pvk Poly-N-vinylcarbazole
124 pvp Poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone
125 SAN Styrene-Acrylonitrile
126 SB Styrene Butadiene
127 SI Silicone Elastomer
128 SMAH Styrene-Maleic Anhydride
129 SMS Styrene-α-methylstyrene copolymer
130 UF Urea-formaldehyde resin
131 UP Unsaturated polyester resin
132 VCE Vinyl Chloride Ethylene
133 VCEMAK ethylene methyl acrylate vinyl chloride
134 VCEVAC Vinyl chloride-ethylene vinyl acrylate
135 VCMAK Vinyl Chloride Methyl Acrylate
136 VCMMA Vinyl chloride methyl methacrylate
137 VCOAK Vinyl chloride-octylacrylate
138 VCVAC Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate
139 VCVDC Vinyl chloride-vinylidene chloride
140 VE Vinyl Ester

If the identification marks are not found - go to the physical tests. First, the simplest ones


Plastic density identification


Technically, the concept of density of plastics is used very rarely as a descriptive characteristic. This is due to the fact that many plastics contain all kinds of voids, pores and defects (which directly depends on the culture of production). True density can in principle be determined from the mass and volume using the “Archimedes method”, i.e. displacement of an equal volume of fluid. This method is quite suitable for granular or powder samples. For many materials it is much more convenient to use the so-called. flotation approach, when the sample floats in a liquid with the same density as it.


The density of the liquid used is measured using a hydrometer (ubiquitous alcohol-meters are a variation of a hydrometer with scale markings in percent by volume of alcohol).



Electrolyte/antifreeze hydrometer

Aqueous solutions can be used as model fluids
zinc chloride or magnesium chloride. If the density is below 1 g/cm 3 , methanol/ethanol/water mixtures are suitable.Restriction in the flotation method: the sample should not dissolve/swell in the liquid; the sample must be completely wetted; the sample should be completely absent air bubbles.


It is important to note that carbon black, fiberglass and other fillers can greatly influence the density index. For example, the density can vary depending on the content of the filler from 0.98 g/cm 3 (polypropylene weight. 10% talc) to 1.71 g/cm 3 (polybutylene terephthalate containing weight 50% fiberglass). Foamed polymers generally do not make sense to evaluate the density parameter, there is one air.


In the simplest case, if there are no exact methods for determining the density, you can immerse the test sample in methanol (density at 20 ° C = 0.79 g/cm 3 ), water (1 g/cm < sup> 3 ), a saturated aqueous solution of magnesium chloride (1.34 g/cm 3 ) or a saturated aqueous solution of zinc chloride (2.01 g/cm 3 ). Next, we look at the behavior of a piece of plastic in a liquid, it sinks or floats. This suggests that it is more dense or less than the density of the liquid in which it is immersed. To prepare 1 liter of saturated solution, approximately 1575 g of zinc chloride or 475 g of magnesium chloride are needed. We bring the salt weighed in advance with water to 1 l of the solution and dissolve with constant stirring. Anticipating the question "where do I get the reagents?" - I will answer with a quote from the same novel "The Girl and the Poultry":


But now I dreamed of only one thing - reagents. About chemical reagents. And I, and Vitya, and Seryozha, and even Zhenka Ivanov, recently did not go to the cinema, did not eat ice cream. We spent all the money on reagents. When I finish school, I will enter the university at the Faculty of Chemistry. But I will study there in absentia. And I will go to work in a chemical store. This is my dream, and I will do everything necessary to make it come true.

For these children, in 1966 it was much harder than you,%% username%:)


Having on hand some numbers, you can further estimate what type of polymer is hidden behind the sample. The table below shows the densities of the most common plastics.


Polymer Density
Density (g/cm 3 ) Material
0.80 Silicone rubber (filled silicone = & gt; up to 1.25)
0.83 Polymethylpentene
0.85-0.92 Polypropylene
0.89-0.93 Low Density Polyethylene LDPE
0.91-0.92 Polybutylene
0.91-0.93 butyl rubber
0.92-1.0 Natural rubber
0.94-0.98 High density polyethylene HDPE
1.01-1.04 Nylon 12
1.03-1.05 Nylon 11
1.04-1.06 ABS plastics
1.04-1.08 Polystyrene
1.05-1.07 Polyphenylene Oxide
1.06-1.10 Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymers
1.07-1.09 Nylon 610
1.12-1.15 Nylon 6
1.13-1.16 Nylon 66
1.1-1.4 Epoxies, unsaturated polyester resins
1.14-1.17 Polyacrylonitrile
1.15-1.25 Cellulose Acetobutyrate
1.16-1.20 Polymethyl methacrylate
1.17-1.20 polyvinyl acetate
1.18-1.24 Cellulose Propionate
1.19-1.35 Plasticized PVC (approximately 40% plasticizer)
1.20-1.22 Polycarbonate (base - bisphenol A)
1.20-1.26 Polyurethane Stitched
1.24 Polysulfone
1.26-1.28 Phenol formaldehyde resins (unfilled)
1.21-1.31 Polyvinyl alcohol
1.25-1.35 Cellulose Acetate
1.30-1.41 Phenol-formaldehyde resin filled with organic material (paper, cloth)
1.3-1.4 Polyvinyl Fluoride
1.34-1.40 Cellulose Nitrate
1.38-1.41 Polyethylene terephthalate
1.38-1.41 Hard Polyvinyl Chloride
1.41-1.43 Polyformaldehyde
1.47-1.52 Urea and melamine formaldehyde resins with organic fillers
1.47-1.55 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
1.5-2.0 Phenoplasts and aminoplasts with inorganic fillers
1.7-1.8 Polyvinylidene fluoride
1.8-2.3 Polyester and epoxy resin with glass fiber filler
1.86-1.88 Polyvinylidene chloride
2.1-2.2 Polytrifluorochloroethylene
2.1-2.3 Polytetrafluoroethylene

In addition to density, one more non-destructive method of research can be the melting point.


melting point


As mentioned above, only plastics with the linear structure of macromolecular chains melt. Stitched "hard" plastic softening is not observed until the temperature at which thermal destruction occurs. Accordingly, this feature can, with some reservations, suggest that we have a cured thermoset material in front of us. In general, the melting point (and, by the way, glass transition temperatures too) are a fairly characteristic indicator for a particular type of polymer. True, the glass transition point is almost impossible to determine at home, it requires serious equipment ( DTA everything is there, measurement of the modulus of elasticity, etc.). But the melting point can be more or less accurately measured, as - watch GOST 33454-2015 . One of the most convenient options is the so-called. Kofler table, which gives accuracy up to 2-3 ° C. If there is no thermotable and it is not foreseen - everyone comes up with methods to the best of their ingenuity, there is a precedent with melting a piece of plastic on a glass ampoule with a mercury mercury thermometer :) (note mine is only for strong spirit guys, with a strong hand and a reliable burner, and the rest strongly discouraged)



The downside to temperature identification is the fact that temperature readings can be influenced by both the heating rate and the presence of certain additives, especially plasticizers. The most reliable indicators can be considered the melting point of partially crystallized polymers (for example, various polyamides). Temperature values ​​for the most important plastics are given in the table below.



Data on absent polymers in the table can be found in the book A. Krause, A. Lange, M. Ezrin Plastics Analysis Guide .If this option does not work - it's time to move to the "heavy artillery."


Flame color and smell


Heavy artillery means of course destruction, which means smoke, soot, flames and unpleasant odors that you have to go through to determine your polymer. Traditionally, I urge all surveys to be carried out either in a workshop equipped with powerful supply and exhaust ventilation, or with a half mask with filter cartridges for “gases and vapors”.


So, when heated, all plastics undergo these or other changes. By the nature of these changes, you can quite accurately determine the type of polymer. For example, aromatic polymers and oligomers: polystyrene, polyethylene terephthalate, epoxy resins, etc. burn with a yellow, highly smoky flame. Blue flame is characteristic of oxygen-containing polymers and oligomers: polyvinyl alcohol, polyamides, polyacrylates. Green flame is observed when burning chlorine-containing polymers: polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride. A perfect addition to the color of the flame can be the smell of "burning plastic", under the spoiler some examples.


What's the smell of burning plastic you wash ...
Plastic Characteristic odor
Polyacetals Formaldehyde tang
Phenolic resins The smell of phenol
Cellulose Acetate Vinegar or burning paper
Cellulose Acetobutyrate Burning oil
Cellulose Nitrate The smell of camphor and nitrogen oxides
Casein-based plastics The smell of runaway milk, burnt bone, burning hair
Carbamide Resins Formaldehyde and ammonia; fishy smell
Amino Resins Fishy Smell
Polyamides The smell of burning bone or burning hair
Polyurethane Strong smell
Polyethylene and polypropylene Smell of burning paraffin (burning candle)
Polystyrene Smell of domestic gas
Polyvinyl Smell of hydrochloric acid
Soft PVC Hydrochloric acid-like aromatic odor
Polyethylene terephthalate Sweet, Strawberry Smell
Polymethyl methacrylate Sweetish, fruity smell

In the table below you can see the flame color/smell characteristics for the most common plastics.



Pyrolysis


The final stage available for home use may be pyrolysis (decomposition at high temperature) of plastic without air. All that is needed for this is to have a reliable gas burner, and a test tube with a stopper (in 1966 such a device was assembled by children from improvised means — see the beginning of the article).



About 0.1 g of the sample of the investigated plastic is placed in a test tube (or some kind of glass tube), closed with a tube with a vapor tube, and heated in a flame of a burner. In some cases, a pad of loose cotton wool or glass wool, which has been moistened with water, is inserted into the open end of the pyrolysis tube. At the open end of the tube should put a piece of wet pH indicator paper.



Another variation of indicator paper

Heat the test tube slowly so that you can notice how the sample changes and smell the gas exhausted . Depending on the reaction of pyrolysis gases with a wet indicator, three different groups of plastics can be distinguished: acidic, neutral or alkaline. The table below shows the plastics and the environment, which is formed by the gases arising from their decomposition, upon contact with water. Depending on the composition, some plastics can float up in pyrolysis dough in different groups, for example, phenol-formaldehyde resins or polyurethanes


pH 0.5 - 4.0 pH 5.0 - 5.5 pH 8.0 - 9.5
Halogen-containing polymers (PVC, etc.) Polyolefins (PE, PP) Polyamides
Polyvinyl Esters Polyvinyl alcohol ABS polymers
Cellulose Ethers Polyvinyl Acetals Polyacrylonitrile
Polyethylene terephthalate Polyvinyl Esters Phenolic and cresol resins
Phenol formaldehyde resins Styrene polymers (SAN, etc.) Aminosmols (aniline-, melamine-, urea-formaldehyde resins
Polyurethane Elastomers Polymethyl methacrylates
Unsaturated Polyester Resins Polyformaldehyde
Fluorine-containing polymers Polycarbonates
Vulcanized Fibers Linear Polyurethanes
polyalkylene sulfide Silicones
Phenolic resins
Epoxy Resins
Stitched Polyurethanes

The last exam ...


And finally, dear reader, if you have read the rest of the article, you can safely consider yourself to have completed the “young polymer research” course and easily use plastic identification algorithms like the one below (the image is clickable).



That's all, divide and conquer over your polymers ! Introduction to plastic identification is complete, subscribe to my Facebook / VKontakte notes to know more and be in the subject of recent surveys (or ask the main question of life, the universe and all that) !


Sergey Besarab ( Siarhei V. Besarab )


PS : when working with polymers and searching for information on the properties of these, I use the MatWeb: Online Materials Information Resource Polymer Properties Database , AZOM Materials Information , MatMatch , and of course the references listed in the list of references. What do you want!:)


References

He, J., Chen, J., Hellwich, K., et al . (2014). Abbreviations of polymer names (IUPAC Recommendations 2014). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 86 (6), pp. 1003-1015.
Vydrina TS Polymer Identification Methods Ekaterinburg, 2005
A. Krause, A. Lange, M.Ezrin Plastics Analysis Guide. Hanser Publishers, 1983.
Bark, L. S., Allen, N. S. Analysis of Polymer Systems. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London, 1982.
Compton, T. R. Chemical Analysis of Additives in Plastics, 2 nd ed. Pergamon, Oxford, New York, 1977.
Ullmann's Polymers and Plastics: Products and Processes: Wiley-VCH
Haslam, J., Willis, H. A., Squirrel, D. C. M. Identification and Analysis of Plastics, 2 nd ed. Butterworth, London, 1972
Mitchell, J. Jr. Applied Polymer Analysis and Characterization. Hanser Publishers, Munich, Vienna, 1987.
Dietrich B. Methods for Identification of Plastics. Hanser
Schröder, E., Müller, G., Arndt K.-F. Polymer Characterization. Hanser Publishers, Munich, New York, 1989.
Verleye, G.A.L., Roeges, N.P.G., De Moor, M.O. Easy Identification of Plastics and Rubber. Rapra Technology Ltd., Strawbury, 2001.

Source text: We return the poultry to the girl. RTFM by definition plastics at home