Electrical diagrams. Types of schemes

Electrical diagrams. Types of schemes


KDPV


Hi Habr!
More often in articles, instead of electric circuits, colorful pictures are given, and disputes arise in the comments.
In this regard, I decided to write a small article on educational programs by types of electrical circuits, classified in the Unified Design Documentation System (ESKD) .

Throughout the article I will rely on ESKD.
Consider GOST 2.701-2008 Unified system for design documentation (ESKD). Scheme. Types and types. General requirements for implementation .
This GOST introduces the concepts:
  • type of scheme - classification grouping of schemes, distinguished according to the signs of the principle of operation, the composition of the product and the connections between its constituent parts;
  • scheme type - classification group, allocated on the basis of their main purpose.

We will immediately agree that the type of circuits we will have is the only one - electric circuit (E) .
We will understand what types of schemes are described in this GOST.
Schema Type Definition Schema Type Code
Structural A document defining the main functional parts of the product, their purpose and interrelations 1
Functional A document explaining the processes occurring in the individual functional circuits of the product (installation) or product (installation) in general 2
Schematic diagram (complete) A document that defines the full composition of the elements and the relationship between them and, as a rule, gives a complete (detailed) understanding of the principles of operation of the product (installation) 3
Wiring Diagram (Editing) A document showing the connections of the component parts of the product (installation) and identifying the wires, harnesses, cables or pipelines used to make these connections, as well as the places of their connections and inputs (connectors, boards, clips, etc.). 4
Connection Diagram Document showing external product connections 5
General Schema A document defining the components of the complex and their interconnections at the place of operation 6
Layout A document defining the relative location of the component parts of the product (installation), and if necessary, also of wiring harnesses (wires, cables), pipelines, light guides, etc. 7
Integrated Schema Document containing elements of different types of schemas of the same kind 0
Note - The names of the types of circuits indicated in brackets, set for electrical circuits of power facilities.

Next, we consider each type of circuits in more detail as applied to electrical circuits.
The main document: GOST 2.702-2011 Unified system for design documentation (ESKD). Rules for the implementation of electrical circuits .
So, what is this and what are these electric circuits eating?
We will be answered by GOST 2.702-2011: Electrical Scheme - a document containing, in the form of conventional images or designations, the component parts of the product, operating with the help of electrical energy, and their interconnection .

Electrical diagrams, depending on the main purpose, are divided into the following types:


Electrical Structural Scheme (E1)


The structural diagram depicts all the main functional parts of the product (elements, devices and functional groups) and the main relationships between them. Graphical design of the scheme should provide the best idea of ​​the sequence of interaction of functional parts in the product. It is recommended to mark the direction of the processes occurring in the product on the lines of interconnections by arrows.
Example of an electrical structural diagram:
Electrical structural diagram

Functional electrical circuit (E2)


The functional diagram depicts the functional parts of the product (elements, devices and functional groups) involved in the process illustrated by the diagram, and the connections between these parts. Graphical construction of the scheme should give the most visual representation of the sequence of processes illustrated by the scheme.
Example of a functional electrical circuit:
Functional electric circuit

Electrical schematic diagram (complete) (E3)


The circuit diagram depicts all electrical elements or devices necessary for the implementation and control of installed electrical processes in the product, all electrical interconnections between them, as well as electrical elements (connectors, clips, etc.) that end input and output circuits. The scheme is allowed to depict the connecting and mounting elements that are installed in the product for constructive reasons. Circuits are performed for products that are in the off position.
Example of an electrical principle circuit:
Electrical schematic diagram

Electrical connection diagram (assembly) (E4)


The connection diagram should depict all devices and elements included in the product, their input and output elements (connectors, boards, clamps, etc.), as well as connections between these devices and elements. The arrangement of graphic symbols of devices and elements in the diagram should roughly correspond to the actual placement of elements and devices in the product. The arrangement of the images of the input and output elements or outputs within the graphic symbols and devices or elements should correspond approximately to their actual placement in the device or element.
Example wiring diagram:
Electrical connection diagram

Electrical connection diagram

Electrical Connection Diagram (E5)


The wiring diagram should depict the product, its input and output elements (connectors, clips, etc.) and the ends of wires and cables (multi-core wires, electrical cords) of external mounting, to which the connection data of the product are placed (characteristics external circuits and (or) addresses). The placement of images of input and output elements inside the graphic designation of the product should roughly correspond to their actual placement in the product. The diagram should indicate the reference designations of the input and output elements assigned to them in the circuit diagram of the product.
Example of electrical connections:
Electrical connections

General electrical circuit (E6)


The general scheme depicts devices and elements included in the complex, as well as wires, harnesses and cables (multicore wires, electrical cords) connecting these devices and elements. The arrangement of graphic symbols of devices and elements in the diagram should correspond approximately to the actual placement of elements and devices in the product. Example of a common electrical circuit:
General electrical circuit

Electrical layout (E7)


The layout shows the components of the product, and if necessary, the connections between them - the structure, room or area on which these components will be located.
Example of electrical layout:
Electrical layout

Combined electrical circuit (E0)


In this type of diagrams, various types are depicted, which are combined in a single drawing.
Example of an electrical circuit:
Combined electrical circuit


PS
This is my first article on Habré do not judge strictly.

Source text: Electrical diagrams. Types of schemes