Each poison has its own antidote. How to escape or at least try ...

Each poison has its own antidote. How to escape or at least try ...


All RCBZ fighters (radiochemical and biological protection) who do not shame the honor of their OZK are dedicated to ...

With interest reading the articles of the colleague gjf about the most interesting, most terrible and most horrible poisons feel nostalgic :) . Because any correct chemist, starting his career, is primarily interested in either poisons, or explosives, or drugs. I have not met people who would have been brought to chemistry by something else, honestly. It is true over the years, if the hobby becomes a profession, all information is somehow rethought and ordered, completely different priorities arise. And now, reading these articles, I recalled my paper notepad, which included descriptions of unusual poisons. Everything flows, everything changes, now in my “working” notebook there are more often “antidotes”. For man invented thousands of ways to destroy life, and not a single one has been invented yet - to create it. The force is in balance, so if there are poisons on Habré, there should be antidotes. Well, I woke up in me permanently dormant sergeant of the Belarusian RCBZ. The article is short, almost without water, but it may turn out to be that vital (= “filling”)! For the antidote - go under the cat.



RU Wikipedia teaches us that:
Antidote or antidote (from ancient Greek ἀντίδοτον, literally - given against) is a drug that stops or weakens the effect of poison on the body.

In principle, every adult person at least once in their life heard about the antidote. Someone, for example, from articles about the gastric stone bezoar, which for centuries has been used as a remedy for any poison (" "). Someone will remember Rasputin, who ate sweet cakes and thus saved himself from cyanide poisoning ( but it did not save him from a bullet ), and someone from Nicholas Cage from the movie The Rock, who harshly drives an atropine into the heart .

We have to admit that today antidotes as such have lost their relevance and most often in the memory of the average person they are associated with courses ( posters on the walls of old scientific research institutes
Until a certain point, all antidotes were not classified and existed completely isolated. But the situation changed in 1993, when, within the framework of the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of WHO, a new definition of the antidote was given:
Antidote is a therapeutic agent used to counteract
side effects of xenobiotics.

and secondly, a list was prepared and submitted to the public, Guidelines for Poison Control .I recommend it, just in case, download and keep it in a prominent place, even though the IPCS experts constantly conduct research and clarify the information (= complement the list, etc.).

Cover Guidelines for Poison Control


The list consists of the following tables:
tab. 1) 48 antidotes that have a positive effect in the treatment of certain acute poisonings
tab. 2) 12 substances used to prevent the absorption of poisons. They also provide symptomatic treatment.
tab. 3) 19 therapeutic agents that have a positive effect in acute poisoning
tab. 4) 23 antidotes and related therapeutic substances that are outdated and whose use is not currently recommended due to inefficiency.

I will give in the article only the first and last tables, as the most vital. The rest, if desired, the inquisitive reader will be able to see for himself, following the link mentioned above.

It should be noted that the WHO definition of a concept is very broad. It
includes both antidotes themselves and non-specific drugs (for example, glucose, vitamin K, diazepam, isoprenaline, etc.), which are widely used in the treatment of specific poisonings.

In the table of antidotes in the column "code" the letter shows the urgency of the application:
And - it is necessary to use immediately (within the first 30 minutes from the moment of poisoning),
B - must be used immediately (in the first 2 hours),
C - it is necessary to use immediately (in the first 6 hours).

The number next to the letter identifies such a parameter as the proof of the effectiveness of the drug: 1 - the effectiveness of the antidote is well documented, 2 - the antidote is widely used, however additional studies are required on the effectiveness and indications for use, 3 - effectiveness is questionable.

Table of antidotes from IPCS
Legend:

ANTIDOT TABLE


Outdated, ineffective and dangerous antidotes


Important note: Specific antidotes should be used only when poisoning is established with a corresponding specific poison, and it is logical that antidotes should be applied as quickly as possible to effectively eliminate the negative effects of poisoning .

Supplement : in response to "from the entire table - I know only 10-15 pieces ...". A few thoughts. For example, the antidote for thallium is Prussian blue aka Prussian blue. Chemist does not have much difficulty in getting Prussian blue, the benefit of “ yellow blood salt ” and ferric salts are almost everywhere. Ferrotsin tablets can help the man in the street (initially positioned as a sorbent of radioactive cesium), which after the Chernobyl disaster could still be found, and then suddenly it became difficult. In the extreme case, you can try to look for the veterinary drug Bifezh, also feeding animals in areas contaminated with radionuclides. Take note that yellow blood salt is a food additive E536, which is placed, for example, in sprat in a Belarusian-made tomato :). Sodium thiosulfate - a photoreactive agent common in the past, so-called. fixative (simple) neutral. Edetate - salts of EDTA, metal complexes with Trilonom-B (EDTA), which is used for softening water and is sold in every stall. One of the best complexing agents - excellent chelates many heavy metals. Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in many foods. Methylene blue is a common household bluing, which is not a problem to get. Amine nitrite is Poppers , which can also be found in a large city without any problems. Etc. etc., if you look at it - it’s not all that sad and it turns out :)
P.S. if something is not found - write in the comments, try to figure it out.

Source text: Each poison has its own antidote. How to escape or at least try ...