is connected again.
Immediately I apologize if the previous article
seemed too boring to you, but in some questions I have completely lost my sense of humor.
And I apologize if I ruined the illusions of some readers.
But according to the results of the voting, we will talk about combat drugs. But these are not some mythical preparations that will be made from the sickly nerd of the Universal Soldier.
This is not at all the case.
When I first began to study the topic, incapacitants interested me the most. No wonder: at some stage humanity suddenly realized that if everyone was poisoned with something like phosgene and V-gases, humanity itself would not be left!
Incapacitants are much more interesting! By definition, “incapacitants are substances that temporarily disable manpower”. It is “out of order” - but not to death.
In my life I have met information that quite a few subgroups belong to incapacitants:
Some stringy list that I found on the network
- Algogens - substances that cause severe pain when it comes into contact with the skin. Currently, there are sold compositions for self-defense of the population. Often also have a tear effect. Example: 1-methoxy-1,3,5-cycloheptatriene, dibenzoxazepine, capsaicin, morpholide of pelargonic acid, resiniferatoxin, phorbol esters, cycloheptatriene.
- Anxiogenes - cause a panic attack in a person. Examples: Type B cholecystokinin receptor agonists.
- Anticoagulants - lower blood clotting, causing bleeding. Examples: Supervarfarin, Dicoumarin derivatives.
- Attractants - attract various insects or animals (for example, stinging, unpleasant) to humans. This can lead to a panic reaction in humans or provoke insect attacks on humans. Can also be used to attract pests to enemy crops. Example: 3,11-dimethyl-2-nonacosanone (a cockroach attractant).
- Aphrodisiacs - cause a strong increase in sexual desire. According to the researchers, this can provoke conflicts in a practically same-sex military team. Examples: Viagra, Cialis.
- Stinky (low-norant) - cause the removal of people from the territory or from a certain person due to the disgust of people to the unpleasant smell of the area (person). Either the substances themselves or their metabolic products may have an unpleasant odor. Examples: mercaptans, isonitriles, selenols, sodium tellurite, geosmin, benzcyclopropane.
- Causing muscle pain - causes severe pain in the muscles of a person. Examples: thymol amino esters.
- Causes of hair loss - the purpose of use is the impact on socially active people, to reduce external attractiveness. Examples: thallium salts.
- Antihypertensive drugs - greatly reduce the pressure, causing orthostatic collapse, as a result of which a person loses consciousness or the ability to move. Examples: clonidine, canbisol, platelet activating factor analogs.
- Hormonal drugs - affect a variety of body systems in very low concentrations, which can cause changes in health and emotional state. Developed metabolically stable forms of hormones. Examples: insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoids.
- Denaturanta - give unpleasant taste to food products, as a result of which hunger can develop in the affected areas. Examples: salt denatonium, quinine.
- Castors - cause chemical castration (loss of ability to reproduce). Examples: gossypol.
- Catatonic - cause development in affected catatonia. Usually referred to the type of psychochemical toxic substances. Examples: bulbocapnin.
- Peripheral muscle relaxants - cause complete relaxation of skeletal muscles. Able to cause death due to relaxation of the respiratory muscles. Examples: tubocurarine, ditilin.
- Central muscle relaxants - cause relaxation of skeletal muscles. Unlike peripheral ones, they have less effect on breathing and their detoxification is difficult. Examples: miorelaksin, phenylglycerol, benzimidazole.
- Diuretic - cause a sharp acceleration of bladder emptying. Examples: furosemide.
- Anesthesia - cause anesthesia in healthy people. So far, the use of this group of substances is hampered by the low biological activity of the substances used. Examples: isoflurane, halothane.
- Drugs of the truth - cause a state of people when a person can not consciously tell a lie. Currently, it is shown that this method does not guarantee the complete truthfulness of a person and their use is limited. This is usually not an individual substance, but a combination of barbiturates with stimulants.
- Narcotic analgesics - in doses above therapeutic, they have an immobilizing effect. Capable of causing addiction. Examples: fentanyl, carfentanil, 14-methoxymetopone, etorfin, dihydroethorphin.
- Memory abusers - Causes temporary memory loss. Often toxic. Examples: cycloheximide, domoic acid, many anticholinergics, some benzodiazepines.
- Neuroleptics - cause motor and mental retardation in humans. Examples: haloperidol, spiperone, flufenazine.
- Irreversible MAO inhibitors are a group of substances that block monoamine oxidase. As a result, when using products with a high content of natural amines (cheeses, chocolate), a hypertensive crisis is provoked. Examples: nialamide, pargyline.
- Suppressors of will - cause a violation of the ability to make independent decisions. They are substances of various groups. Example: scopolamine.
- Prруrigeny - cause intolerable itching. For example: 1,2-ditiocyanoethane.
- Psychotomimetic drugs - cause psychosis that lasts for some time, during which a person cannot make adequate decisions. Example: BZ, LSD, mescaline, DMT, DOB, DOM, cannabinoids, PCP, psilocybin, DET, DMGP.
- Laxatives - cause a sharp acceleration of emptying the contents of the intestine. With prolonged action of drugs in this group may develop depletion. Examples: Bisacodyl.
- Tears (lacrimators) - cause severe tearing and closing of the eyelids of a person, as a result of which a person temporarily cannot see what is happening around and loses combat effectiveness. There are toxic chemicals used to disperse demonstrations. Examples: chloroacetophenone, bromoacetone, bromobenzyl cyanide, trialkyl lead salts, ethyl bromoacetate, ethyl iodoacetate, ortho-chlorobenzylidene malonodinitrile (CS).
- Sleeping pills - cause a person to fall asleep. Examples: flunitrazepam, barbiturates.
- Sternites - cause indomitable sneezing and coughing, as a result of which a person can drop a gas mask. There are service agents. Examples: adamsite, diphenylchloroarsine, diphenylcyanarsine.
- Tremorgenes - cause convulsive twitching of skeletal muscles. Examples: tremorin, oxotremorine, tremorgenic mycotoxins.
- Photosensitizers - increase skin sensitivity to solar ultraviolet rays. When entering the sunlight a person can get painful burns. Examples: hypericin, furocoumarins.
- Emetics (gag) - cause a gag reflex, as a result of which it is impossible to remain in a gas mask. Examples: apomorphine derivatives, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, PHNO, aminotetralin derivatives.
Since this is Habr, and this opus is not written by a doctor of science, major general chem. troops, member cor. and the rest of the others, I will allow myself to challenge this list.
The dispute will be brief, one-sided, very unprofessional and highly subjective.
“Drugs of the truth" should be administered intravenously - and This necessarily psychological impact on the person. How to use it in a combat situation? Yes, and "examples" - are very controversial: for example, the "caster" gossypol - natural polyphenol, has antiviral, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antioxidant properties, antitumor activity. I have never met the information that it is used for chemical castration: it is not a hormone of the type of cyproterone acetate, from which even a typical macho tits grow, and not a neuroleptic like benperidol, from which nothing at all is wanted. Apparently, the role of “castrators” in reducing the combat ability of the authors has changed dramatically after the story of Theon Greyjoy - well, nothing, he later even showed a very good performance, yes.
Smelly substances scare warriors? It was written by someone who had never been in the barracks.
And yet - scopolamine - will suppressor? Bugaga.
Therefore, I will not attempt to provide examples from this list for each group. Maybe they exist, but they are classified, maybe - these are just fantasies of the authors who presented them, and maybe - I just don’t want to :-)
I am also bored with a group of irritants - this is the sum of lacrimators (from which they cry) and sternites (from which they cough). I will not consider the Irritants - firstly, they are also a problem - they do not last long, especially if you leave the affected area, and with some an unintentional file can happen, like with CS in Vietnam (however, after defoliants, I don’t think it’s was the biggest misfortune). Well, secondly, as I understood, the reader’s longrid tires :-)
So because% username%, let's talk about much more interesting!
There will be no hit parade this time, so let everyone choose their own favorite.
Fluorotan is the most boring, simple and uninteresting incapacitant. It is a colorless, non-flammable and volatile liquid (boiling point about 50 ° C). It stinks like chloroform.
Fluoro-anesthesia is used in various operations, including abdominal (abdominal or chest cavity organs), in children and the elderly, in patients with bronchial asthma. The use of ftorotanovy anesthesia is especially useful in cases when excitation and stress of the patient should be avoided (for example, in neurosurgery, ophthalmology, etc.). For the introduction of anesthesia, start with the supply of fluorothane at a concentration of 0.5% by volume (with oxygen), then increase it to 3-4% by volume for 1.5–3 minutes. To maintain the surgical stage of anesthesia, a concentration of 0.5-2% by volume is used.
When using ftorotana, consciousness is usually turned off after 1-2 minutes after the inhalation of its vapor. In 3-5 minutes, the surgical stage of anesthesia begins. 3-5 minutes after stopping the supply of ftorotan, patients begin to wake up. Anesthetic depression completely disappears in 5-10 minutes after a short-term and 30-40 minutes after prolonged anesthesia. Excitement is rare and mild. Irritation of the respiratory system does not happen at all.
They say that you should not play around with ftorotan, because in some cases it causes severe damage to the liver (halothane hepatitis). Predominantly, hepatitis occurs in people over 40, and more often in women than in men. The toxic effect of ftorotana is caused not only by direct influence, but also by the formation of toxic metabolites (trifluoroacetic acid, trifluoroethanol, trifluoroacetaldehyde).
But since the ftorotan vapor is about 6.7 times heavier than air, it was actually considered as an option of “sleep gas”, a drawback - you need to act quickly, because after the pairs disperse, after 5 minutes everyone will wake up.
Isoflurane has the same properties.
Such incapacitants of entry level. But they discover the Great and Horrible group of physicists - substances that cause short-term disorders - physical or physiological.
Who else do we have here?
Well, apomorphine is probably well known to those who are
prone to suicide
at least once strongly experienced food poisoning. Yes, it is a medicine that is obtained from morphine when it is exposed to hydrochloric acid. This removes the oxygen bridge, which is characteristic of morphine alkaloids, and a new four-cyclic compound is formed as a result of molecular rearrangement.
All addicts to stand and not run to the pharmacy - although apomorphine retains some of its dad's properties, its main effect is different: it is the strongest emetic drug. 0.01 mg/kg causes the following pleasant sensations: first you,% username%, as if ukachaet: pallor, cold sweat, nausea - if you were never swayed, then forward - you will surely understand how it is. Then, after about 3-10 minutes, you will start to feel sick immediately, abundantly and uncontrollably. No, this is not something “nauseous”, as sometimes after a drunk - no: you literally make friends with a white friend, who probably is in your apartment in an honorable place. Hugging him and calling Ihtiandr will take about an hour - constantly, with occasional interruptions. Then let go - a small weakness and everything will pass.
It is clear now why apomorphine is used
It is clear that a gallant soldier, who irresistibly tears to his homeland, is of little use in battle. There is one drawback: apomorphine must be injected into the bloodstream or inhaled into the nose. Drink it with some water for the effect you need quite a lot (more than 10 mg) - and in a gelatin capsule with ascorbic acid, otherwise the substance will collapse in the stomach. In battle, it will not work.
By the way, apomorphine is often trained by complete alcoholics. The method of training is simple: inject apomorphine hydrochloride under the skin in a single dose from 0.002 g to 0.01 g, individually selecting the dose that causes vomiting in the patient. 3-4 minutes after the administration of apomorphine, the patient is given a glass with 30-50 ml of an alcoholic beverage, which he abuses. At the beginning of nausea they offer to drink a sip of the drink, after which you should sniff it and rinse your mouth with it. When the nausea increases dramatically and the patient feels the approach of vomiting, he should drink another sip of alcoholic beverage. Usually, 1–15 minutes after the onset of nausea, vomiting develops. Sessions are held 1-2 times a day. Pavlov applauds.
There are other substances with a similar effect. Here is the closest example:
No one gets licorin, it is isolated: it is an alkaloid contained in a number of plants of the Amaryllis family, especially in the plants of clivia, crinum, galantus, ungernia.
The drug is about 50 times weaker than apomorphine, but it causes vomiting even with neuroleptic poisoning - therefore, we are especially fond of suicide.
I have a personal dislike for this substance, but this is another story. Fentanyl is a narcotic analgesic. In medical practice it is used in the form of citrate. It has a strong, rapid analgesic effect. In Russian - from him stick. And much. Like from heroin.
When administered parenterally, animals cause analgesia in doses that make up thousandths-hundredths of a mg/kg. The effect occurs in 2-10 minutes. The lethal dose of fentanyl for rats when administered intravenously is LD50 = 3-5 mg/kg. Fentanyl causes a loss of sensitivity in a person with an oral dose of 0.05–0.1 mg/kg, and convulsions already occur at a dose above 0.2 mg/kg.
Well, it is clear that the brave chemists did not stop at fentanyl and began to actively look for what to do with it so that it came out faster, higher, stronger. Well, I must say - it turned out. Some successes are lower.
The most important success. It is one of the most powerful opioids, one unit of carfentanil is 100 times more potent than the same amount of fentanyl, 5,000 times more potent than heroin and 10,000 times more potent than morphine. The median analgesic activity of ED 50
(well, that is, it affected 50% of the subjects) for this substance when administered intravenously to rats is 0.41 µg/kg, the median lethal dose LD 50
(50% died here) - 3.39 mg/kg, the effect on the human body begins with 1 μg.
In peacetime, Carfentanil is used as a tranquilizer for elephants: if you,% username%, keep an elephant at home, then to put it to sleep, know that two milligrams of carfentanil are enough. This item is produced commercially: the drug is present in the pharmaceutical market under the Wildnil trademark as a general anesthetic intended for large animals - a very large activity does not imply its use in humans. If it is interesting, then Sufentanil is currently the most powerful opioid used for medical purposes in humans, about 10-20 times less than Carfentanil. By the way, omegentanil is also used for animals. And yes, all these “flying syringes” are from this topic.
One of the well-known examples of carfentanil use in veterinary practice is an episode of the documentary series Animal Cops: Houston on Discovery TV channel, which showed how brown bear was euthanized by carfentanil (diluted in honey) in order to be safely transported from a harsh individual Texas to Houston Zoo.
According to a number of experts, not confirmed by Russian security forces, the aerosol based on carfentanil was used during the storming of the Theater Center on Dubrovka in Moscow in 2002 in order to reduce the likelihood of explosive devices exploding by terrorists. This conclusion was drawn from the fact that emergency medical services were instructed (with a delay and without divulging the nature of the agent) to use opioid antagonists. Due to the lack of information, physicians could not develop a resuscitation strategy and ensure a sufficient number of naloxone and naltrexone used for this purpose to successfully help all the victims. Assuming that the only active component of the sleeping aerosol was carfentanil, the main cause of death for the victims could be respiratory arrest caused by opioids, in this case artificial respiration and using antagonists could save the lives of most or all of the dead.
I stress once again: I was not there, I am writing what is in open sources, and therefore I would say that there are still opinions that:
- It was not carfentanil that was used, but 3-methylfentanyl (to be lower).
- Fluorotane was used (was higher).
- Used BZ (it will be completely below).
In short,% username%, if you have more questions about this - call +74952242222.
Alfentanil is a very younger brother of Carfentanil. At a dose of 0.0025 mg/kg, people experience tremor, and at a dose of 0.175 mg/kg, a person becomes immobilized 4–5 minutes after ingestion. It is reported that the National Institute of Justice of the United States when searching for substances capable of immobilizing criminals without harming them, used Alfentanil. It turned out, however, that it is worth to exceed the therapeutic dose by 4 times, as there is a danger of a fatal stop of breathing. In the end, researchers had to abandon experiments with Alfentanil and search for safer substances. Especially famous was the 3-methylfentanil synthesized in 1972 - a powerful drug and analgesic, more active than heroin, 500–2000 times. When administered by inhalation, 3-methylfentanyl is superior to many psychomimetics in terms of activity.
Knowing about the properties of fentanyl derivatives, some decided to make their poison with preference and harlots - and α-methylfentanyl appeared. This rubbish is an evil dope, the easiest to synthesize among all the fentanyl derivatives. Features: ruins the lives and those who accept it, and for those who make it
. I basically will not write anything about it. Sorry% username%.
By the way, to immobilize - it is not necessary to pump drugs. Another connection has the immobilizing effect:
0.001 mg/kg causes physical impotence, however, quickly passing. To weaken forever - you need to overeat: the toxic dose is 1000 times higher.
Honestly: I already forgot the trivial household name of this substance, but I found the formula. Use it.
Raise rates,%% username!
Sernil, or phencyclidine, or SN according to the nomenclature of foreign services in doses of 0.03–1 mg/kg after a period of latent action of up to one hour, begins to work very funny: a periodic change of arousal and depression occurs. I do not know how to convey this range of feelings, but in the end the body gets tired very quickly. There is a feeling of deep loneliness and isolation, then - negativism and hostility. 8-10 hours after the introduction of sernil, the symptoms differ little from those of schizophrenia.
If a bit too far, then at 2 mg/kg catalepsy is possible up to 3 days. This is when you sit, look out the window and do not move. But there are pluses - you can put up in the gallery ...
Created this miracle in the 1950s in the United States and even initially used for medical purposes right up to 1965. Since 1979, seryl has been banned for use and production.
By the way, an interesting contingent of your court may know sernil as PCP, Peace pill, angel dust (Angel dust) - yes, yes, Aria, HOG, Killer weed, KJ, Embalming fluid, Rocker fuel, Sherms and others sing about it.
Sernil is very addictive, and this fellow is extremely jealous of other sources of worldly pleasures: in combination with other substances, such as alcohol, marijuana, or benzodiazepines, it can lead to coma.
As a friend and comrade-in member, there is this:
This is the second substance in which I have forgotten the trivial name. Now you know my crappy handwriting,%% username! Believe it is worse than any poison.
found that garbage is N-methyl-3-piperidylbenzylate, for which Thanks, but unfortunately this is not a trivial name that I wanted to remember).
This garbage in doses of 60-210 mcg/kg acts after 0.5-2 hours if inside, and if you inhale or prick it, then after 5 minutes. Medium per person need only 5 mg.
With the defeat of the symptoms are very similar to Syl. Soon after intoxication, weakness, dizziness, trembling and muscle twitching will appear, then nausea, numbness in the mouth and speech disorder appear. And now, after about an hour, the main thing will begin. Lost the ability to focus and think, a sense of time and space. Coordination is disturbed, conditioned reflexes are distorted. And most importantly: hallucinations. Colorful. Auditory and visual. But the trouble - all terrible. Against the background of incessant feelings of fear and horror - this is something. To be afraid, to hear and see what you are afraid of, you will be 5-6 hours long, and if you are lucky to grab 200 µg/kg or more - complete depersonalization takes place, you,% username%, are no longer% username% - and the little one that is shaken a creature that cries, sobs and fears. Really fun?
So much fun that the most famous psychotropic incapacitants are associated precisely with a hallucinogenic effect.
So, we meet -
For the word "LSD", by the way, hides the name of this masterpiece - N-N-Diethylamide D-lysergic acid. Well, it's about as if your name and patronymic.
Right,% username%, I don’t know how and why on November 16, 1938, the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann obtained LSD-25 from lysergic acid in Basel (25 - because it was the 25th compound that he synthesized). Mankind already knew about ergot toxicity from ergot; Arthur Stoll in the Sandoz laboratory had even isolated ergotamine from sclerotia in 1918 - but studied it in the light of the stimulating effect on the uterine musculature. I do not think that Hofmann had problems with the uterus, but one way or another - he got LSD. Pat him (although he already died, but not from this).
And so, on April 19, 1943, Hofmann, as a true scientist (hm?), Accepted what he synthesized. 250 mcg. Bottom line: after a while, dizziness and anxiety began to appear. Soon the effect became so strong that Albert could no longer make coherent sentences and, watched by his assistant, notified of the experiment, went on a bicycle home. The trip turned out to be fascinating: Hofmann's subjective sensations — a very slow ride — did not correspond to the objective ones: he was driving like a stimulated guinea pig. At the same time, the familiar boulevard on the way to the house turned for Hofmann into a picture of Salvador Dali: it seemed to him that the buildings were covered with small ripples.
After Hofmann reached the house, he asked the assistant to call the doctor and ask the neighbor for milk, which he chose as a general antidote for poisoning.
The arriving doctor could not find any abnormalities in the patient, except for dilated pupils. However, for several hours Hofmann was in a state of delirium: it seemed to him that he had become possessed by demons, that his neighbor was a witch, that the furniture in his house threatened him. Then the feeling of anxiety receded, multicolored images in the form of circles and spirals, which did not disappear even with closed eyes, replaced him.Hofmann also said that the sound of a passing car was perceived by him in the form of an optical image.
On April 22, he wrote about his experiment and experience, and later put this note in his book “LSD is my difficult child.”
In the preface to his book, Hofmann wrote, in particular, that he became a chemist because of his desire for absolute unity with nature. He was looking for substances that expand a person's ability to perceive the world around it in its entirety. However, at the time of writing the book, the scientist already knew that the connection discovered by him not only expands the consciousness, but can also destroy the human psyche, leading to disastrous consequences.
“The deliberate challenge of mystical experiences, in particular, with the help of LSD and similar hallucinogens, compared with spontaneous visionary experience, entails dangers that cannot be underestimated. Practitioners should take into account some of the effects of these substances, namely their ability to influence our consciousness, the deepest essence of ourselves. The history of LSD today demonstrates enough the catastrophic consequences that may come when the depth of its effects is underestimated and this substance is perceived as a drug that can be taken for pleasure. Improper and inappropriate use made LSD my difficult child. " -" LSD is my difficult child ", A. Hofmann.
However, since April 19, 1943, some adepts call the “Day of the Bicycle” and even celebrate. In its own way.
Mark in honor of the holiday. Guess what's on the mark on the other hand?
In addition to the symptoms described by Hofmann, LSD causes the following. Fifteen to twenty minutes after admission, unpleasant sensations are noted: a feeling of restraint, fatigue, internal agitation, often anxiety, dizziness and headache, unpleasant pains in the region of the heart, cold snap and hand trembling. The skin turns red or pale — along with a feeling of heat or cold, nausea and sweating begin. Pupils dilate, speech loses slimness, the pulse becomes rapid, and breathing - slow. Disruption of motor coordination leads to an uncertain walk and inability to pick up objects. Such a sweet state lasts from 40 to 90 minutes.
Then mental disorders begin, and different depending on the mental state of people (approximately like during drinking at corporate parties): someone gets depressed, someone gets euphoria, as lucky. Someone actively jumps and laughs, and someone sits and cries. The illusory perception of the world begins: spots and cracks on the walls are perceived as objects, people are perceived as distorted, everything around is painted in unnatural colors. Hallucinations of all types begin, synesthesia is very frequent - this is when it seems that you see taste, you hear a smell - in short, perceptions mix. There is an illusion of a split personality: it seems that what is happening around, although it is happening - but does not apply to you. Orientation in space is lost, thinking is disturbed - everything, the soldier is not a soldier. Due to frequent changes in the state of depression and euphoria, psychosis may develop, often - persecution, hostility, distrust, heightened sensitivity to touch and aggression.
The peak of exposure is noted 2-4 hours after the lesion, lasts 5-8 hours, then gradually decreases. At the end, memory lapses are very frequent.
The mechanism of action of LSD is quite complicated. First of all, this substance is a structural analogue of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates the state of rest, sleep and energy accumulation. The antiserotonin action of LSD leads to hallucinations.In addition to low-specific serotoninolytic (a substance blocking nerve synapse receptors in which serotonin is a mediator), LSD also has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase (MAO) serotonin, as well as on MAO other mediators - γ-aminobutyric acid, histamine and noradrenaline. In short, the effect is quite diverse and I must say - not fully understood.
For some time it was assumed that the study of a new drug will help to understand the nature of schizophrenia, which also has problems with the work of serotonin. However, many scientists did not believe that psychedelic and schizophrenic psychosis were identical. Despite some common features, the hypothesis about the unified nature of schizophrenia and the effects of LSD has been refuted.
Anyway, in the 1960s, LSD research was actively conducted - and I am now talking about a completely peaceful study of scientists at universities in the United States and other countries. The studies of Stanislav Grof and Timothy Leary are best known. The latter led the active promotion of this psychotropic substance, because he believed that the beneficial effect of it outweighs the possible side effects. In addition, he gave LSD to some students, without warning them about his name, as was often practiced during that period in the study of psychedelics. Subsequently, Timothy Leary was actively persecuted by the authorities, including because of his aggressive position about the benefits of “consciousness expansion” for the person.
In 1977, during the hearings in the US Senate, CIA Director Stansfield Turner admitted that the CIA had conducted a series of experiments using LSD on people without their consent and their knowledge since the beginning of the 1960s (the MK Ultra program). Many Americans were subjected to such experiments, among which were prisoners, patients of psychiatric hospitals and patients of oncological centers, nurses, “other medical personnel”. At the same time, some of the subjects experienced “first symptoms of schizophrenia.”
A wave of passion for psychotropic substances and LSD, which greatly influenced the formation of the counterculture of the sixties and seventies, swept across America. The phrase of Dr. Leary, which turned into a motto for the use of psychedelics: “Turn on, tune in, drop out” (“Turn on, tune, drop out”) became widely known. The word dropout meant the departure from the conservative mores and way of life of the main part of the society.
In 1966, production, distribution and consumption were prohibited in the United States. The drug was banned even for laboratory research.
And of course LSD was loved by creative people.
- When The Beatles recorded the song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", John Lennon explained the origin of the name of the song by saying that his son Julian christened his drawing. However, many saw this title as an allusion to the LSD drug, because it was such an abbreviation that consisted of its first letters, and the BBC completely banned the song for rotation. Later, Paul McCartney said that the influence of LSD on this song is quite obvious.
- LSD fans were such eminent scientists as Francis Crick - one of the pioneers in the study of the structure and functions of DNA and Stanislav Grof, who was involved in transpersonal psychology. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates also turned to the drug. Jobs describes his LSD experience as "one of two or three of the most important things done in life." By the way, Jobs died of pancreatic cancer, and Gates is one of the champions in terms of funds donated to charity. Most likely it is not connected in any way.
- A well-known fact is that LSD was used “for inspiration” by world-famous writers Aldous Huxley (“Oh Brave New World”), Kurt Vonnegut (“Cat's Cradle”), Ken Kesey (“One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest”), and musicians like John Lennon, Cyd Barrett, Jim Morrison and others.
- By the way, in the movie “Black Mirror. Brandashmyg "hero with a friend experience the effect of LSD is very similar to the present.
But back to our subject. At the time of the discovery of LSD, the warriors and the special services had a whole list of very different ready-made substances with a similar effect: mescaline, psilocybin, TMA, THC, nalorphine, harmine, DOM, DMT, ibotenic acid ... Even the same N, N-dimethylamide acetic acid - and that at 400 mg/kg causes depression, loss of orientation, visual hallucinations, delirium and lethargy - moreover, reliably, for 7 days!
But they chose LSD after all. Why?
- For a reliable fly away, 0.1-0.2 mg per non-drinker and 0.3-0.5 mg per drinker are enough (yes, that's right!). THIS IS VERY LITTLE! Therefore, in interesting places they do not sell LSD pills - they sell stamps, licking which you are guaranteed to get the right dose.
- LSD is highly soluble in water (in the form of tartrate) and fairly stable.
- A lethal dose of about 100 mg per person, which is 500-1000 times higher than the current one. It is difficult to kill (but from the above-mentioned N, N-dimethylamide of acetic acid, by the way, 1 person from 3 wakes up).
- There is no cumulative effect.
- Habituation — in any case, physiological — no.
- "It takes" at least 5 hours - up to a maximum of 2 days.
So the drug not only got into the annals, but also was put into service under the clear and clear cipher LSD. And also synthesized analogs! True, all came out unsuccessful.
The main analogues of LSD (in brackets their hallucinogenic activity in relation to LSD in%)
- 2-bromo-LSD (7%, the effect appears only in 2% of subjects, 1.5 times more active anti-serotonin agent than LSD, a reduction - BOL);
- lysergic acid amide (0%);
- lysergic acid dimethylamide (10%);
- lysergic monoethylamide (5-10%);
- lysergic morpholide (30%);
- 1-acetyl-LSD (100%, but the duration of action is 2-3 times shorter, and the vegetative effects are more pronounced, designation - ALD-52);
- 1-methyl-LSD (36%, 4 times more active than LSD for antiserotonin activity);
- 1-methoxy-LSD (66%);
- lysergic pyrrolidide (5%).
The lack of LSD was obvious: ergot was necessary for the synthesis, it had to be grown, it gave little lysergic acid - the product was expensive. The search began for something that would be no worse. And yet found!
No,% username%, has no relation to any sounds of organic origin. And the fact that “BZ” with an error with the layout is obtained as “IYA” is a simple coincidence. Probably.
BZ - benzyl acid 3-quinuclidyl ester is a psychotomimetic from the group of glycolate.
It was invented by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffman-LaRoche in 1951 - the company investigated antispasmodics for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. And what turned out to be inappropriate from the ulcer turned out to be very suitable for other purposes (well, with Viagra, by the way, it also turned out the same).
At this time, the United States military struggled to find possible non-lethal, psychoactive substances that incapacitate, including psychedelic drugs such as LSD and THC, dissociative drugs such as ketamine and phencyclidine, potent opioids such as fentanyl, and several glycolate anticholinergic means. And then it was lucky.
Initially, the drug was designated as "TK", but when it was standardized by the army in 1961, it received the code name of NATO "BZ". The agent usually became known as “Buzz” because of this abbreviation and the effects it had on the mental state of volunteer people in scientific research at Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland.
In 1962An installation for the production of substance BZ on an industrial scale was launched at the military base Pine Bluff (Arkansas). Its combat effectiveness was evaluated during a field test ending in 1966.
Since BZ is white crystals with a melting point of 190 ° C, low volatility and high thermal stability, cluster bombs were used that scattered pyrotechnic “smoking” pieces with BZ for about 1.2 hectares. There were also "generators", fueled with 5-6 kg of BZ. Also considered options for infecting fragments, bullets and other things.
BZ acts as an aerosol at concentrations of about 110 mg * min/l - and it is really difficult to kill with this substance, it was noted that in the group of danger there are old people, children and people with respiratory diseases.
The beginning is normal: dilated pupils, dry mouth, increased heart rate. After 30-60 minutes, the main act of the drama begins: weakening of attention and memory, reduction of reactions to external stimuli, pronounced depression and disorientation of orientation in the environment. After 1–4 hours, severe tachycardia, confusion, loss of contact with the outside world are noted. Hallucinations are so strong that the unfortunate cannot understand what is really happening and what he thinks. This is a lot of fun% username%. Fuck up, damn it.
As a result, aggressive negativism develops: a person does the opposite of what is offered to him. And very often - with flashes of anger. This madness lasts up to 4-5 days, residual disorders - up to 2-3 weeks. Possible partial or complete loss of memory.
The mechanism of action of BZ is no less complicated than that of LSD. BZ is an antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, that is, it is essentially an anticholinergic agent that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses involving acetylcholine — yes, yes,%% username, just like V-gases and G-gases, but there are nuances. The nuance in the high ratio of toxic dose to the current one: in BZ, this ratio is about 40 times (range from 32 to 384 times), that is, in effect, BZ is a very, very small poisoning. In short, the devil himself will break his leg, but the dope (atropine), diphenhydramine and taren (aprofen) are brothers in the mechanism of action with BZ. Well maybe not native, but definitely cousins.
There is a mention of a case of use of a substance during the Vietnam War, but the results are reported only to be “satisfactory.”
It is assumed that Paul Robson was poisoned with BZ in 1961, which caused an attack of hallucinations and severe depression.
In February 1998, the UK Department of Defense accused Iraq of storing a large amount of glycolic anticholinergic "agent 15". Agent 15 was assumed to be chemically either identical to BZ, or closely associated with it, and was stored in large quantities before and during the Gulf War. However, after the war, the CIA concluded that Iraq did not accumulate or did not arm agent 15.
In January 2013, an unidentified representative of the US administration, referring to an unsolved telegram of the US State Department, stated that "Syrian contacts convincingly prove that Agent 15, a hallucinogenic chemical similar to BZ, was used in Homs." However, in response to these reports, a spokesman for the US National Security Council said: "The reports we have seen from the media about alleged chemical weapons incidents in Syria do not correspond to what we consider to be true about the Syrian chemical weapons program." The chemical was also allegedly used in attacks in Guta in August 2013.
On April 14, 2018, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov reported that experts from the Swiss Center for Radiological and Chemical-Radiological Analysis in Spitz, who analyzed samples of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons from the site of poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury, found traces in these samples. Bz.On April 18, at the meeting of the Executive Council of the OPCW, its Director General Ahmet Uzumczyu explained that the BZ precursor was used as a control sample to check the quality of the laboratories and had no relation to the samples from Salisbury.
In 1988–1990, as they say, all BZ reserves in the USA were liquidated along with industrial production. Now the only pilot production on the planet, located in the city of Edgewood (USA), allows to produce up to 20 tons/year, while outside the US total production capacity does not reach 1 ton/year, because for all this time the problem has not been solved efficiently obtaining its precursor - 3-quinuclidol (because of this, 1 kg of BZ cost about $ 44 - and this is at prices of the 1960s). Well, they say, I do not know. But I know that there were attempts to replace - the most famous is dithran.
Dietran - in fact, a mixture of such a composition
It is believed that at a dose of 5-15 mg this mixture causes symptoms similar to BZ that develop within an hour.
At the moment, psychotropic drugs are not officially in service with countries of the world. But watching some mass events in neighboring countries and not very much - I strongly doubt that this is so. The armies may not be worth it, but the intelligence services are clearly working.
Well, this turned out to be a story.
See if you like it,% username%. There will be no voting this time - the article rating will show everything.
Unfortunately, on Saturday, I will start another time for long-distance and not very business trips - and therefore there will be little time for creativity — I will go on another sabbatical leave. And since there is little time, but so far there is only one more or less formed story about yellow phosphorus and the accident near Lviv, associated with it, then if it turns out that I am still interesting, I will share this story with you.
Well, if not - well, I tried.
Good luck and do not hurt! Neither physically nor mentally ...